Student research

At The University of Manchester Law School, we actively encourage our students to get involved in research at all levels of study and to build a portfolio of independent work that will aid their career development.

By creating a supportive School community, we facilitate the exchange of ideas between staff and students outside as well as inside the curriculum, generating debates that lead to a better understanding of the law and the production of original pieces of work.

Seeking to highlight the quality of work our teaching and learning environment produces, we offer students opportunities to showcase their work through peer presentations and by submitting articles to the Manchester Review of Law, Crime and Ethics, our annual student journal.

The Manchester Review of Law, Crime and Ethics

The Manchester Review of Law, Crime and Ethics is a student-led peer-reviewed journal founded in 2012. To purchase a hard copy of the Manchester Review, or to contact the team, email:

Past volumes

Volume 12 - 2024

Table of contents

Volume 12: law, crime and ethics.

  1. The Future of Justice: A tribute to Mark George KC - Suzanne Gower ... 16
  2. Unaffordable Rights: Reconciling the Supreme Court’s Recent Decisions on the Legality of Fees - Maxwell Brodie ... 48
  3. Driving into the Unknown: An Evaluation of Liability for Accidents Caused by Autonomous Vehicles under UK Law - Yuqing Ou ... 66
  4. Abortion, Autonomy and Artificial Wombs: The Potential Impact of Partial Ectogenesis on Abortion Access in England and Wales - Aoife Mageean ... 89
  5. Revisiting Marxist Perspectives on Punishment in the Age of Mass Incarceration: A Critical Analysis of the Contemporary Use of Prison - Ermela Sadiku ... 127
  6. Liberty, Equality, Disability? Reforming the Mental Health Act 1983 to Address the Over-Inclusion of People from Marginalised Communities - Isabel Makin, Joanna Walkowiak, Kirsty Keywood, and Neil Allen ... 143
  7. Is it Inconsistent to Reject Legislative Intent Whilst Endorsing a Purposive Approach to Statutory Interpretation? - Leon Qiu ... 162
  8. On the Analysis of Non-Western Medical Practice Using Theories of Western Medical Ethics - Isabel Zak ... 177
  9. Maximum Diversion and Minimum Intervention should be the Fundamental Principles of any Youth Justice System - Chandrika Abedin ... 197
  10. The European Convention on Human Rights: An Ineffective Way to Tackle Destitution - Anthea Siew Yu ... 224
  11. Look in the Shed: Effective Investigation of Violations of the Right to Life - Christopher Adair, Claudia Joyce Choo, Joshua Garside, and Christopher Thirkell ... 236

Volume 11 - 2022

Table of contents

Volume 11: law, crime and ethics.

1. Absent or Present? A Re-examination of the Existence of a Good Faith Doctrine in English and International Commercial Law - Kurnia Rozliham... 15

2. Equity and the Duality of the English Legal System: a Bleak House? - Diane Forey ... 28

3. Are Tribunals User-Friendly? An Analysis of the Tribunals System - Grete Labunski... 41

4. Lawful Assisted Dying and Its Eligibility Criteria: A Pernicious Message to Vulnerable People? - Helen Ryan... 52

5. Direct Awards and Extreme Urgency: Lessons from UK Procurement During the COVID-19 Pandemic - Eleanor Aspey... 70

6. The Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007: Satisfactorily Unsatisfactory - Thomas Spencer... 97

7. Decolonising Human Rights: State Sovereignty, Colonialism and Challenging Conventionality - Dhuha Al-fahad...114

8. Causation in Clinical Negligence: Inconsistent Application and Claimant Injustice - Elinor Jackson... 129

9. Not-So-Human Rights? A Case for Granting NonHumans Legal Personhood - Rosie Brown... 147

10. The State We Are In: The Crisis of Criminal Justice and How We Got Here - Mark George KC... 164

Volume 10 - 2021

Table of contents

Volume 10: law, crime and ethics.

1. Memories Should Remind Us of Judicial Discretion - Mukuma Kawesha... 16

2. Domestic Legal Status of EU Law: In Search of Intellectual Clarity - Jiacheng Gong... 30

3. Ending the “War on Drug Users”: Abandoning the Criminal Justice Approach to Drug Use in the UK in Favour of a Public Health Model - Ellicia Schacht... 48

4. A Comprehensive History and Critical Analysis of Optography: Can it Qualify as a Science in Light of Modern Scientific and Forensic Standards? - Anja Lampesberger... 68

5. Practice over Principle: Why the Unwritten, Monarchical and Religious Nature of the United Kingdom’s Constitution Should Remain Untouched - Tom Horobin Evans... 85

6. Public Criminology: Theoretically Informed External Mission Against Discipline-fuelled Internal Struggle, in the Context of Criminological Need for Reconciliation - Vlad-George Zaha... 95

7. Electronic Monitoring as an Electronic Panopticon: A Foucauldian Perspective - Michelle Corallo...110

8. Medical Gatekeeping and Access to Abortion: Opening the Floodgate or Embracing Patient Autonomy? - Yunjiao Liu... 121

9. The Doctor’s Dilemma: Deciphering the Legal and Ethical Principles in the Acts and Omissions Doctrine - Wei Zi (Jinnie) Lau... 137

10. Ill or Illegal? How the Mental Health Act 2007 Criminalises Psychopathy - Tobias Collins... 158

11. Just Obsolescence: Is Just War Theory Still Relevant in the 21st Century? - M. J. Taylor... 173

12. The Program for Making America and Europe Beautiful: ‘Hipster Antitrust’ and US and EU Antitrust Law and Policy - George Sakkopoulos... 191

13. Cross-Border Civil Litigation in the Post-Brexit Era: A Note on Jurisdiction and Enforcement - Gerard McDermott QC and Elinor Watts... 208

Volume 9 - 2020

Table of contents

Volume 9: law, crime and ethics.

1. Westphalia to Westminster: British Autonomy in the Postmodern Era - Mitchell J. Taylor… 12

2. The legal regulation of surrogacy in the UK: The need for change - Nancy Evans… 32

3. UK regulation on ballast water management: What can be improved upon? - Weng Chi Cheah... 56

4. The Defamation Act 2013: A matter of interpretation in the ongoing battle between free speech and the right to reputation - Hannah Claire Dykes… 77

5. Chasing the Ideal: Anabolic and androgenic steroid use amongst male adolescents in the UK - Paul Anthony Wardle… 99

6. Lessons from Darfur: The Sociological Drivers Behind Mass Violence - Josh Sromek… 141

7. Has Freedom of Expression been unduly restricted in Europe regarding religious matters? - Richard Kelly… 162

8. The Tos and Fros of Democratic Fabric: How effective is Parliament as executive watchdog? - Timothy Ke… 214

Volume 8 - 2019

Table of contents

Volume 8: law, crime and ethics.

1. Parliament, people and the executive: the eternal love/hate triangle - Dr Javier Oliva Garcia... 12

2. Cases on conflict as to the best medical treatment for children - is the welfare of the child really being protected? - Bryony Moore... 28

3. Contemporary use of force with an emphasis on South Ossetia and Abkhazia - Ivaylo Dimitrov... 39

4. Evaluating Rafter's contention that rape is a 'key means of achieving genocide' - Patrick Shortis... 68

5. Can the case for legalised physician-assisted dying withstand objections based on the sanctity of life and the doctor-patient relationship? - Anna Nelson... 83

6. Reconsidering consideration - an evaluation of Williams v Roffey Brothers thirty years on - Kevin Patel... 102

7. Protection or protectionism: a critical analysis of Article 102 TFEU - Tanjia Bashor... 139

8. Slaughtered at the altar of free trade: are WTO riles hindering the progression of animal welfare standards in agriculture? - Victoria Hootan... 152

9. Is the test of 'gross negligence' sufficiently robust in determining criminal liability for healthcare professionals who have caused the death of a patient? An analysis of gross negligence manslaughter and medical mishaps - Sophie Walmsley... 179

Volume 7 - 2018

Table of contents

  1. 'Out with the old, and in with the old': Walking the Tightrope of Press Regulation – Oliver L.S. Carr…14
  2. The state as a nomenclature of convenience: in defence of individual responsibility under international criminal law – Marlon Anthony James…26
  3. Mass violence and Christie’s Ideal Victim: A Critical Analysis – Georgios Karamanos…49
  4. Critical analysis of the proposition that it is impossible to distinguish art from pornography – Suchitra Suresh Kumar…62
  5. The Potency of Politics: An Exploration of the Value of Critical Discourse Analysis in the Realm of UK Drug Policy- Fiona Long…72
  6. Are recent decisions concerning the withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments from patients in a minimally conscious state to be feared as a complete departure from the sacred principle regarding the protection of human life – Joanna Maddocks…87
  7. When designing laws, should a decent legal system dismiss the consideration of all differences in treatment based on colour, while considering particular differences pertaining to class and sex? - Arun Muralikrishnan…106
  8. Resource allocation in healthcare: should people be penalised for contributing to their own health conditions? - Natalie Richardson…117
  9. Are the models of establishment in England and Scotland defensible in contemporary democracy? – Priscilla Teh Leng Suan…136
  10. Pitting freedom of expression against freedom of religion: The paradoxical effect of blasphemy laws and why one should be favoured over another – Kende Szabo…147

Volume 7 available here.

Volume 6 - 2017

Table of contents

  1. Mass sexual violence in Darfur: An analysis of macro-, meso-, and micro-level variables – Amy Cross…8
  2. Opting out of the CISG: is the law too complicated for such a popular choice? – Océane Girard…23
  3. Class action (not US-style): enhancing access to justice – Shinthean Ng…49
  4. Dworkin’s Hercules as a model for judges – Arvindh Rai…58
  5. Pregnant women may have moral obligations to foetuses they have chosen to carry to term, but the law should never intervene in a woman’s choices during pregnancy – Elizabeth Chloe Romanis…69
  6. Should the law recognise rights in all humans and only in humans? – Aneela Samrai…86
  7. An exploration into the factors shaping victim reporting of partner abuse to the police – Victoria Smith…95
  8. The regulation of the civilian and military realms of cyberspace – Jake Taylor…121 
  9. A critical assessment of the separability doctrine, its impact and application – Fiona Winnifred Lakareber…148

Volume 6 available here

Volume 5 - 2016

Table of contents

  1. An analysis of a democratised House of Lords: The cost of wisdom - Liam Reynolds...10
  2. Article 8 and the evolution of healthcare law - Maya Kotob...17
  3. The role of legitimate expectations in establishing a jurisprudence constante in international investment law - Dumitru Filip...28
  4. The principle of freedom of contract: Are the courts too interventionist? - Scott Salisbury...58
  5. Should isolated human genes be patentable subject matter? - Wing Yin Chan...64
  6. An evaluation of the likely consequences of prohibiting the sale, distribution and possession of tobacco in Britain - Natasha Walker...94
  7. A critical evaluation of the effectiveness of administrative tribunals - Reni Oluwadare...111
  8. Rawls’ ‘justice as fairness’: should we run a state by it? - Annabelle Potanah...120
  9. The law and ethics behind ‘three-parent babies’ - Elyssa Liu Jiawen...129
  10. ‘Techtopus’: A critical analysis of the Silicon Valley wage-fixing scandal - Nicolette Lee...160
  11. A framework for understanding the burden of proof - Joe Tomlinson...179
  12. Negotiating or gain based remedies in contract – account of profits, Wrotham Park and its progeny - Lesley Anderson QC...185

Volume 5 available here.

Volume 4 - 2015

Table of contents

  1. Critically Analyse Whether the Existence of an Established Church is Compatible with a Modern Democracy in the 21st Century - Dominika Belesova …1
  2. Deconstructing the Devolution Process in Northern Ireland: One Small Step Towards Uncertainty - Anna Chestnut …14
  3. The Restraint of War is the Beginning of Peace - Faisal Al-Brumy … 29
  4. Coercion, Risk and Defensive Practice in Mental Health - Jonathan Fisk …40
  5. Between the Pillars of Liberalism and Capitalism: A Comparison of Theories of Exploitation - James Gale…61
  6. A Critical Evaluation of Radical Feminism’s Approach to Trans* People and Their Rights - Hannah Farrington … 74
  7. Emissions Trading is Undoubtedly a Powerful Regulatory Tool that has the Potential to Help Achieve Dramatic Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions. But the European Emissions Trading Scheme is, Quite Simply, Unfit for Purpose - Ammar Lulla … 87
  8. Is the Moral Approach of the West to Chemical Weapons Justified, or Morally Inconsistent? - Liam Whitfield …102
  9. The United Kingdom: Should We Move Towards a Republic? - Kerry Corrigan … 113
  10. International Law and the First World War - Charles Garraway … 125
  11. Criminal Legal Aid in the Balance - Franklin Sinclair… 137
  12. Yam Seng v International Trade Corporation – An Interim Report on the Implied Duty of Good Faith - Elizabeth Robertson… 143
  13. Bananas and the European Commission: A Comment on Case C-286/13 P Dole Food Company Inc., and Dole Fresh Fruit Europe v European Commission - Sonam Cheema … 148

Volume 4 available here

Volume 3 - 2014

Table of contents

  1. Britain’s Pursuit of a Codified Constitution - Arvindh Rai…. 1
  2. The ‘Constitutional Straightjacket’ and Inadequate Rights-Protection: A Proposal for Limited Judicial Empowerment in the Human Rights Act - Dalton Hale… 10
  3. Additional Member System: The Forgotten Alternative Vote - Philine Scheer… 23
  4. The Nature of the State - Xian Liang Yuen… 34
  5. Best Interests Cannot Be Divorced From Family Faith - Stephanie Murphy… 44
  6. Different Categories of Employment Status: An Opportunity for Employers to Cut Costs or Another Hurdle to Overcome - Sophie Cooke… 55
  7. The CESL Proposal: Progress or Misstep? - Sam Wardleworth… 67
  8. Incoherence and Policy in the Law of Causation: A Cause for Concern? - Alex Sprake… 79
  9. Gender, Crime and Criminology - Chris Clarke… 88
  10. A Comparative Analysis of the RNR Based Sex Offender Treatment Programmes - Jessica Capello Mathews… 101
  11. A Critique of Enlightened Shareholders Value: Revisiting the Shareholders’ Primacy Theory - Collins C.Ajibo… 115
  12. Football Must Play By the Same Rules as Everyone Else - A Comment on Berg v Blackburn Rovers Football Club & Athletics PLC - Philip Ebsworth
  13. Power v Greater Manchester Police Authority - Amin Al-Astewani…144
  14. The Queen and the Constitution (And Me) - Rodney Brazier… 150 

Volume 3, available here.

Volume 2 - 2013


  1. Danny Watson, Style over Substance? A Comparative Analysis of the English and French Approaches to Fault in Establishing Tortious Liability
  2. Fabian McNeilly, Sham Self-Employment Contracts: Taking a Liberty?
  3. Harriet Evans, The Bloody Code
  4. Joel Goh, Proportionality - An Unattainable Ideal in the Criminal Justice System
  5. Mark Szepes, MARPOL 73/78: The Challenges of Regulating Vessel-Source Oil Pollution
  6. Richard Jones, Constitutional Reform and the Contribution of the Political Parties since the beginning of the 20th Century
  7. Tanzil Chowdhury, A Radical Interpretation of Individual Self-Defence in War
  8. Magdalena Borucka, Merchandising and Brand Extension in the Music Industry
  9. Sarah L Morgan, Do No Harm: ‘Best interests’, patients’ wishes and the Mental Capacity Act 2005
  10. Dorota Galeza, Hard Cases
  11. Francis Okanigbuan, Corporate Takeovers And Shareholder Protection: UK Takeover Regulation In Perspective
  12. Malcolm Oswald, What has the state got to do with healthcare?

Volume 1 - 2012


  1. Kelly Bouloy, The Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998: Nothing more than a “Cardboard Shield”
  2. Caoimhe McElduff, The Right Answer? An assessment of the Charter of Fundamental Rights and its necessity in Europe
  3. Jodie Gittins, An Evaluation of the Scope and Importance of Judicial Discretion from 1750-1850
  4. Megan Caulfield, Constitutional Conventions in the United Kingdom: Should they be codified?
  5. Darya Kraynaya, Economics and Jurisprudence: Is John Rawls’ difference principle just another form of supply-side economics and can it be applied effectively in modern society?
  6. Rudi Roscetti, Necessity or Nuisance? A Comparative Review of the Approach towards the Recovery of Pure Economic Loss in English Law with that of French Law
  7. Amber Edmondson, The Moral Justification Against Torture
  8. Molly Grace, The Draft Defamation Bill - A Radical Change?
  9. Kourosh Majdzadeh Khandani, Does the CISG, compared to English law, put too much emphasis on promoting the performance of the contract despite a breach by the seller?
  10. Calum Darroch, Problems and Progress in the Protection of Videogames: A Legal and Sociological Perspective

Volume 1, available here.